— A Certificate Authority is a trusted third-party organization that issues digital certificates such as SSL Certificates after verifying the information included in the Certificates.
SSL and TLS terms are often used in confusing ways:
- SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the original protocol implementation. SSLv3 is still allowed by Dovecot, but it's rarely used. Some clients use SSL to mean that they're going to connect to the imaps (993), pop3s (995) or smtps (465) port, although they're still going to use TLSv1 protocol.
- TLS (Transport Layer Security) replaced the SSL protocol. TLSv1 protocol is used practically always nowadays. Some clients use TLS to mean that they're going to use STARTTLS command after connecting to the standard imap (143), pop3 (110) or smtp port (25/587). Nothing would prevent using SSLv3 protocol after STARTTLS command.
Using two separate ports for plaintext and SSL connections was thought to be wasteful, so STARTTLS intended to deprecate the SSL ports (imaps, pop3s, smtps, etc). This never really happened, probably because of two reasons:
- Some admins don't even know about STARTTLS.
Some admins want to require SSL/TLS, but don't realize that this is also possible with STARTTLS (Dovecot has disable_plaintext_auth=yes and ssl=required settings).
- Some admins understand everything, but still prefer to allow only SSL ports. This could be because it makes it easier to ensure that no information is leaked, because SSL/TLS handshake happens immediately. Some clients unfortunately try to do plaintext authentication without STARTTLS, even when IMAP server has told the client that it won't work.
Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be any clear and simple way to refer to these different meanings.
SSL term is much more widely understood than TLS, so Dovecot configuration and this documentation only talks about SSL when in fact it means both SSL/TLS.
SSL works pretty much the same universally, so for more information about SSL you can see for example Apache's documentation.
- Dovecot uses OpenSSL, so whatever information you find about it applies also to Dovecot.